Species profile

Genus Vitis
Species V. vinifera
Common name Cult
Distribution Worldwide
Chromosome number 2n = 38
Morphological Description

Plants sprawling to moderately high climbing, sparsely branched. Branches: bark exfoliating in shreds or plates; nodal diaphragms 3–5 mm thick; branchlets terete to slightly angled, pubescent, sometimes glabrescent, growing tips not enveloped by unfolding leaves; tendrils along length of branchlets, persistent, tendrils (or inflorescences) at only 2 consecutive nodes; nodes not red-banded. Leaves: stipules usually more than 3.5 mm; petiole ± equaling blade; blade cordate-ovate to cordate-orbiculate, 12–20 cm, usually 3-shouldered to 3–5-lobed, sometimes deeply so, apex acute to short acuminate, abaxial surface not glaucous, sparsely pubescent to glabrate, visible through hairs, adaxial surface usually glabrous. Inflorescences 10–20 cm. Flowers bisexual. Berries usually reddish purple to nearly black, sometimes yellow-green, ± glaucous, oblong to ellipsoid, 8–25 mm diam., skin adhering to pulp; lenticels absent.

Genome assembly


Phylogenetic tree

Population structure



Name: Berry weight   Scale: g


Author Title Journal Year PMID
Amanda M. Vondras et al. The genomic diversification of clonally propagated grapevines BioRxiv 2019
Andrea Minio et al. Diploid Genome Assembly of the Wine Grape Carménère G3 (Bethesda) 2019 30923135
Guo D L, et al. Genome-wide association study of berry-related traits in grape [Vitis vinifera L.] based on genotyping-by-sequencing markers Horticulture Research 2019 30603096
Liang Z, et al. Whole-genome resequencing of 472 Vitis accessions for grapevine diversity and demographic history analyses Nature Communications  2019 30867414
Zhou Y, et al. The population genetics of structural variants in grapevine domestication. Nature Plants 2019 31506640
Laucou V, et al. Extended diversity analysis of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera with 10K genome-wide SNPs PLoS One 2018 29420602
Roach MJ , et al. Population sequencing reveals clonal diversity and ancestral inbreeding in the grapevine cultivar Chardonnay PLoS Genet 2018 30458008
Sagar Patel et al. Comparison of three assembly strategies for a heterozygous seedless grapevine genome assembly BMC Genomics 2018 29343235
Canaguier A, et al. A new version of the grapevine reference genome assembly (12X.v2) and of its annotation (VCost.v3) Genomics Data 2017 28971018
Tabidze V, et al. Whole genome comparative analysis of four Georgian grape cultivars Molecular Genetics and Genomics 2017 28785866
Zhou Y, et al. Evolutionary genomics of grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) domestication Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 29042518
Chin CS et al. Phased diploid genome assembly with single-molecule real-time sequencing. Nature Methods 2016 27749838
A.-F. Adam-Blondon GRAPEVINE GENOME UPDATE AND BEYOND Acta Horticulturae 2014
Di Genova A , et al. Whole genome comparison between table and wine grapes reveals a comprehensive catalog of structural variants BMC Plant Biol 2014 24397443
Da Silva C , et al. The High Polyphenol Content of Grapevine Cultivar Tannat Berries Is Conferred Primarily by Genes That Are Not Shared with the Reference Genome Plant Cell 2013 24319081
Jaillon O et al. The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla Nature 2007 17721507